In OS, why loadable kernel modules (LKMs) don’t need to invoke message passing in order to communicate?

Solution for In OS, why loadable kernel modules (LKMs) don’t need to invoke message passing in order to communicate?
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My question lies in a paragraph, the paragraph are shown as follow, I can’t understand the the bold sentence. If it doesn’t need to invoke message passing, how does it complete communication between process?

Modules

Perhaps the best current methodology for operating-system design involves
using loadable kernel modules (LKMs). Here, the kernel has a set of core
components and can link in additional services via modules, either at boot time
or during run time. This type of design is common in modern implementations
of UNIX, such as Linux, macOS, and Solaris, as well as Windows.

The idea of the design is for the kernel to provide core services, while
other services are implemented dynamically, as the kernel is running. Linking
services dynamically is preferable to adding new features directly to the kernel,
which would require recompiling the kernel every time a change was made.
Thus, for example, we might build CPU scheduling and memory management
algorithms directly into the kernel and then add support for different file
systems by way of loadable modules.

The overall result resembles a layered system in that each kernel section
has defined, protected interfaces; but it is more flexible than a layered system,
because any module can call any other module. The approach is also similar to
the microkernel approach in that the primary module has only core functions
and knowledge of how to load and communicate with other modules; but it
is more efficient, because modules do not need to invoke message passing in
order to communicate
.

Linux uses loadable kernel modules, primarily for supporting device
drivers and file systems. LKMs can be “inserted” into the kernel as the system is started (or booted) or during run time, such as when a USB device is
plugged into a running machine. If the Linux kernel does not have the necessary driver, it can be dynamically loaded. LKMs can be removed from the
kernel during run time as well. For Linux, LKMs allow a dynamic and modular
kernel, while maintaining the performance benefits of a monolithic system. We
cover creating LKMs in Linux in several programming exercises at the end of
this chapter.

In OS, why loadable kernel modules (LKMs) don’t need to invoke message passing in order to communicate?

The simple answer is that because they’re loaded into kernel space and dynamically linked; the kernel can use “mostly normal” functions calls instead of anything more expensive (message passing, remote procedure calls, …) to communicate with it.

Note: Typically (especially for *nix systems) a driver will provide a set of function pointers to the kernel (e.g. maybe one for open(), one for read(), one for ioctl(), etc) in some kind of “device context” structure; allowing the kernel to call the driver’s functions via. the function pointers (e.g. like “result = deviceContext->open( ..);).

“The approach is also similar to the microkernel approach in that the primary module has only core functions and knowledge of how to load and communicate with other modules; but it is more efficient, because modules do not need to invoke message passing in order to communicate.”

This paragraph has the potential to give you a false impression. For extensibility alone, modular monolithic kernels are similar to micro-kernels (and both are a lot more extensible than a “literally monolithic (one piece, like stone)” kernel). For other things (e.g. security) modular monolithic kernels are extremely dissimilar to micro-kernels.

For Linux specifically; you can think of it as almost 30 million lines (growing at a rate of over 1 million lines per year) of potential security vulnerabilities running at the highest privilege level with full access to every scrap of data, with an average of about 150 discovered critical vulnerabilities per year (and who knows how many undiscovered critical vulnerabilities).

One of the main goals of micro-kernels is to place isolation barriers between the “kernel core” and everything else; so that you might end up with several thousand lines of kernel that doesn’t grow (and a significant improvement in security). It’s those isolation barriers that require less efficient communication (e.g. message passing).

“…but it is more efficient, because modules do not need to invoke message passing in order to communicate.”

This could be rephrased more correctly as “…but it is more efficient, because modules do not need to pass through an isolation barrier.”

Note that message passing is merely one way to pass through an isolation barrier – there’s shared memory, signals, pipes, sockets, remote procedure calls, etc. Nothing says a micro-kernel has to use message passing and you could design a micro-kernel that does not use message passing at all.